In response to my last post on "Too many Ph.D's" (in USA), a commentator, Sachin, makes an important point why academia is attractive to foreigners. Another anonymous commentator states, "Too many PhDs graduating from American universities? It depends if these PhDs decide to work in countries were they would be more necessary(?)." This is an interesting point and we should compare the number of Indians graduating with Ph.D's from USA and India. Please note that I am not even including higher education institutions in UK, Canada, Australia etc.
The number of Ph.Ds awarded in USA to INDIANS in engineering is roughly 1300, which is higher than the number of Ph.D's awarded in India (around 900). The number of full time Ph.D's awarded in India is less than 500, predominantly dominated by IITs and IISc.
In 2008, the number of Ph.Ds awarded in USA to INDIANS in chemical engineering is roughly 100, while that awarded by IITs/IISc is around 50. The number of vacancies for faculty positions in India for chemical engineering is less than 15 per year in all IITs/IISc put together.
This is because, unlike the US, which is worried whether they are producing too many Ph.D's, India's enrolment ratios are very poor. India’s gross enrolment ratio in higher education (graduation) is close to 7 per cent. The enrolment from bachelors to doctorate in engineering is around 0.1 per cent. The privatization of professional education has ensured that 90% of the engineering colleges are private but less than 10% of undergraduate education in basic sciences, social sciences and commerce are privatized. In all cases, the average quality of education has been disastrous. Thus, more than 150,000 students leave the country in pursuit of higher education and spend roughly $1.8 billion to get an education abroad.