He defined five questionable paper-publishing practices in China: charging exorbitant publication fees, where instead of a peer review systems authors pay hundreds or thousands of yuan for publication in a journal; the establishment of illegitimate journals; ghostwriting of papers; paper brokering, where authors pay agencies to get their papers published in particular journals; and the fabrication of awards by illegitimate journals.
The open-access as well as the e-only journals have had an effect, which was not originally intended. Thus many dubious publishers have started new e-only open access journals, which bypass the peer review process and publish anything by charging exorbitant publication fees ranging from $1000 to $3000 per paper. Thus, we have a situation where nearly 5000 journals are published in India but less than 50 journals are actually indexed in Web of Science. In many institutions (not IITs), a point system is followed wherein 1.5 to 2 points are alloted for a publication in an international journal and 1 point to a national journal. In these institutions, selection and shortlisting for an interview call is done by an administrator who does not know the difference between a paper in Nature and a paper in some unknown non-peer reviewed journal. The administrator just looks at the names of the journals and classifies them. For example, a paper in proceedings of the national academy of sciences (PNAS) is often classified as a national journal while a paper in International journal of beekeeping would be an international journal.
Despite the flaws and subjectiveness of a peer review system and a selection committee, it seems essential in this age of fake journals and dubious publishing practices.